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发布日期:2021-03-13 00:08:02 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

Author: Tim is the one


Drafting: Sun Lu / Proof: Cat Stu / Editor: Yakult

起草人:孙璐/证明:Cat Stu /编辑:养乐多

In recent years, China's infrastructure development has attracted worldwide attention, and the total length of the expressway network has become the world's first. However, when it comes to the total length of roads, China has not ranked among the top two in the world.


The number one road mileage in the world is naturally another veteran infrastructure madman-the United States, and this second place is our neighbor-India.


Looking at the highway rankings, India seems not worth mentioning


But looking at the road ranking, it’s already the second in the world


(Picture: Wikipedia-List of highway mileage in various countries)▼


Yes, in terms of mileage, India has the second largest road network in the world. However, overall development is a different story.


Does this count as overload


(Photo: Malcolm P Chapman / Shutterstock.)▼


The northern part of the Indian subcontinent, due to the existence of the Indus Valley and Ganges Valley, is a vast plain area. The flat terrain has created good conditions for India to build roads.


Of course, like many achievements in infrastructure and political construction in India, it was the British colonists who integrated the scattered territories.


Under the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau


From the Indus to the Ganges, it forms a wide plain.


Further south is the mountainous Deccan Plateau


In the history of the Indian peninsula, the reunification of north and south has always been difficult ▼


In the 1830s, the British East India Company launched a road construction plan, mainly for commercial and administrative purposes. Since it is the first highway, it must be connected to major cities in India. The specific route is Kolkata-Delhi-Peshawar. This road gradually evolved in the later period, and today it has become part of India's most important road traffic route (Indian trunk road).


Two major construction priorities


One is the east-west traffic artery of the Ganges River Basin


One is India's inland export transportation network centered on Mumbai


The Ganges Artery has a long history, which has continued from the classical era to the present day


(The picture below is for illustration only, not the specific route during the British colonial period)▼


In addition to the construction of major roads in India, the connecting roads between some other major cities are also underway: Mumbai to Pune, Mumbai to Agra, and Mumbai to Chennai are all being built. At the same time, for the sake of sustainable development, the British have also used universities to train a large number of local engineers, surveyors and supervisors for India. With the accumulation of local talents, the future road maintenance work and new road tasks will not worry.


Mumbai is arguably the fastest rising city during the British colonial period


This is originally seven small islands, which were gradually reclaimed and expanded


Together with the commander of the land and sea transportation hub on the west coast of India


Shanghai gradually changed from a deserted island to India▼


In the 1850s, Britain had built nearly 2500 kilometers of roads for India.


However, as a veteran infrastructure madman, the British rulers at that time paid most attention not to roads, but a new thing at the time-railways.


Against this background, during the British Indian period, India’s railway network grew by leaps and bounds, while the construction of modern roads did not invest much, so India’s roads have long lagged behind railways.


Railway viaduct from Mumbai to Thane in 1855


The British people's development of railways mainly value freight value


(Photo: wikipedia-SMU Central University Libraries)▼


For the Indian people with very low long-term income


The train is indeed the most cost-effective option, and it is still the case today


(Photo: Hung Chung Chih / Shutterstock)▼

(照片:洪钟智/ Shutterstock)▼

Over time, even the British themselves became anxious. In December 1934, the British Indian Government established the Indian Highway Association in accordance with the recommendations of the Indian Road Development Council.

随着时间的流逝,甚至英国人也开始感到焦虑。 1934年12月,英属印度政府根据印度公路发展委员会的建议成立了印度公路协会。

In 1943, World War II was in full swing. They proposed a 20-year plan (the Nagpur Plan). It was estimated that the road network would be increased to 350,000 kilometers by 1963, and the levy on gasoline since 1939. Part of the tax expense is for the new road plan.


Although the plan was almost interrupted due to the decline of British national power and India's independence after World War II, it may be because the foundation left by the British is still there, and the early leaders of India also noticed the value of roads, which was eventually continued. By the late 1950s, Indians had completed this grand plan.


This generation of Indian leaders has a grand dream of being a great power


Although there are setbacks, India's national strength has been greatly improved overall


(In 1956, Nehru visited West Germany)


(Picture: wikipedia)▼


In 1956, India put forward a 20-year goal to double the density of the road network. This plan is also called the "Mumbai Plan."


In 1988, the National Highway Administration of India was formally established. Its establishment marks the beginning of a new phase in India's road network construction until now.


The competent authority is online


(Picture: wikipedia-Surya Prakash.S.A.)▼

(图片:维基百科-Surya Prakash.S.A。)▼

To this day, the Indian road network has undertaken 85% of passenger traffic and 70% of freight traffic. But on the books, the super-long road network and the paved road with one lane are only about 10,000 kilometers. The overall situation is not as optimistic as the Indian government's publicity.


Among them, the best road conditions are national highways. They account for about 2% of the total road length in India, but they bear more than 40% of the road transportation demand.


A rough indication of the Indian National Highway System, all over the country


After all, except for a few parts of the north, India


In most areas, there are not too many geographical barriers in road repair ▼


As a national major channel system, the Indian National Highway also has the same numbering system as the Chinese National Highway.


The Indian national highway does not have a capital radial highway similar to the "1" in the Chinese national highway. The national highways from north to south are arranged incrementally by even numbers, and national highways from east to west are arranged in odd numbers, very similar to the north-south trunk lines and east-west trunk lines with the prefixes "2" and "3" of the Chinese national highways. Either one digit or two digits.

印度的国道没有与中国的国道“ 1”相似的首都子午线高速公路。从北到南的国道以偶数递增排列,从东到西的国道以奇数排列,这与以“ 2”和“ 3英寸的中国国道。一位或两位数。

The north-south national highway is roughly indicated, sorted by even numbers


(Not all numbers are marked)▼


The east-west direction of the national highway is roughly indicated, sorted by odd numbers


(Not all numbers are marked)▼


In addition to the main line, there are branch lines derived from the main line and branch lines (secondary branches). The first-level branch line adds a number before the main line, and the second-level branch line adds a letter after the first-level branch line. . For example, the meaning of 702B is the second (B) second-level branch line of the 7th first-level branch line of the north-south national highway (2) in the east, which is equivalent to the function of the "5" prefix in the Chinese national highway. .

除主线外,还有从主线和分支线(次级分支)派生的分支线。第一级分支行在主行之前添加一个数字,第二级分支行在第一级分支行之后添加一个字母。 。例如,702B的含义是东部的南北国道(2)的第七条第一级分支线的第二(B)条第二级分支线,等效于“ 5 ”为中国国道的前缀。 。

That's it ▼


As for the state roads in India, their nature is the same as that of the domestic provincial roads. They are the main trunk roads in the state. In the national road network, state roads are regarded as branch lines of national roads. However, unlike China’s national and provincial roads, which are almost indistinguishable, Indian state roads are relatively narrow, generally without separation zones, and basically no lanes.


To be honest, this road situation is similar to the state of a domestic rural road that has just been paved and has not yet been paved.


Beware of slippery roads...


(图片:TheFinalMiracle / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:TheFinalMiracle / Shutterstock)▼

As the rural road network (including administrative suburban roads, village roads and community roads) that account for a large proportion of the Indian road network, the administrative level is similar to the roads below the county roads in our country, and the situation is even more disdainful.


This can actually be considered a highway


(图片:Ravi Shekhar Pandey / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Ravi Shekhar Pandey / Shutterstock)▼

The rural road network is under the jurisdiction of the local government, and is mainly used to solve the "last mile" transportation in various places in the bank. The road conditions are generally poor and the dirt roads are mostly. It is also for this reason that quite a few roads are difficult to navigate during the rainy season, which seriously affects transportation.


This can actually be counted as highway +1


(photo: rinku Mishra / shutterstock)

(热点:Rinkumi sh等人/ Shute rs and ck)

The roads are already very poor, and the level of service provided by India’s road network is also very low, partly due to poor physical conditions, use of old vehicles and increasing traffic. The mixed traffic of fast and slow vehicles, highly congested and unsafe urban intersections, encroachment activities within the right of way along the way, and frequent forced parking at various checkpoints to check documents and collect taxes are also important management reasons.


Even Shanghai-Mumbai in India


This is also very common


(Image piece: sldkozaponi / Shutterstock) ▼


Due to this situation, approximately 25% of national highways and state highways are congested, and the average speed of passenger transport vehicles on national highways is only 30-40km/h. This is the case on the national road, let alone the situation below the state road.

由于这种情况,约有25%的国道和州道拥堵,国道上的客运车辆平均速度仅为30-40 km / h。国道上就是这种情况,更不用说国道下的情况了。

Small rural roads are relatively better


(Photo: Saurav022 / Shutterstock)▼

(照片:Saurav022 / Shutterstock)▼

At the same time, road transportation in India is divided into traditional road transportation and modern road transportation.


Traditional road transportation is carried out by ox carts, camel carts, rickshaws, horse carts, etc., and still occupies an important position in India.


Roads more suitable for animals


(图片:Lola Tsvetaeva / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Lola Tsvetaeva / Shutterstock)▼

Modern road transportation is undertaken by various motor vehicles. Road transport in India is jointly operated by state governments, private individuals and cooperative agencies.


Because India’s road transport still includes traditional road transport in its definition. So according to the definition, as long as the natural roads that can be walked are counted as roads in India, because these natural roads that have not been developed, cows, horses, camels, and people can still walk and transport on them, and produce "economic benefit".


I specifically asked the author


This seems to be considered a highway, too.


(图片:Lola Tsvetaeva / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Lola Tsvetaeva / Shutterstock)▼

Indian roads look good on the books, but in fact they are frustrated. Indians also know this well. While demanding face-saving data, we also did not forget to upgrade domestic infrastructure facilities. It was just slower, but it has been moving forward.


Especially in places that can't be improvised


No matter how low the cost is, it cannot match the rural dirt road


Besides, the Indians see it as a strategic path


(Image: surassawadee / Shutterstock) ▼


The current goal of the National Highway Administration of India is to implement its national highway development plan. The key project in the plan is the highway project in India.


The initial construction plan of the Indian highway is to build a highway network connecting India’s main industrial, agricultural and cultural centers. The four cities of Chennai, Old and New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata are the apex, and the adjacent cities are connected by highways. A quadrilateral, so the plan is also called the golden quadrilateral plan.


Currently, the Golden Quadrilateral plan has been completed in 2012.


"Golden Quadrilateral"▼


The Indian National Highway System, which has initially formed a system, has also begun coding rules. As there are few highways built, the rule is to arrange them in the order of the time they were built. Currently, 6 highways have been built.


The most recent expressway was completed on the 17th of last month. It is a branch of the No. 5 expressway and was named NE5A.


After the completion of the Golden Quadrangle, the next project is also being gradually advanced. This is the North-South Corridor and East-West Corridor Expressway Plan, which will be a highway network connecting India's four poles in the southeast, northwest and northwest.


While India is proceeding in an orderly manner with respect to highway construction, it also attaches great importance to the development of ordinary highways.


In particular, India’s border road construction is the top priority for India’s ordinary road construction.


The purpose is of course to transport the army and supplies


(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

The Border Road Construction Agency of India is an agency established for this task. India has transferred personnel from the Army Corps of Engineers, Army Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, Army Logistics Forces, Army Logistics Forces, and the Army from other regions to form this organization specifically.


This is probably the most enthusiastic project of the Indian government


(图片:Perfect Lazybones / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Perfect Lazybones / Shutterstock)▼

At present, its business scope is generally distributed in the border areas of India. At the same time, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka also have related businesses of the agency.


In June 2020, the border zone of India


(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

(Image: Faizan Mir / Shutterstock) ▼

(图片来源:Faizan Mir / Shutterstock)▼

Due to the strong military color of this institution, some of India's "heavy weapons" projects are undertaken by it. For example, the 10-year-old Luotang (Atar) Tunnel, which has just been opened to traffic, connects Manali in Himachal Pradesh to Leh in the border area. After the road is completed, it used to climb through the winding road. The Luotang Pass of the Birbenjar Range, which passes through the pass, will pass through in the form of a tunnel, and this tunnel will also become the first long tunnel temporarily in India.


The section through the snow-capped mountains in the picture is the Luotang (Atar) Tunnel


(Picture: google map)▼


Regardless of the normal construction of India’s border roads, in fact, there are some cute stories during the construction process. For example, when their milestones are set, they use words that make the locals smile to prevent accidents. .

实际上,不管印度边境公路的正常建设如何,在建设过程中都会有一些可爱的故事。例如,当设定了里程碑时,他们使用使当地人微笑的单词来防止篮球投注软件事故发生。 。

India, which has the world's second largest road network, still has great ambitions.


Ambition is indeed great


(September 2020, the highway to Leh)


(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼



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