专注篮球投注软件,篮球投注软件有哪些行业13年
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篮球投注软件有哪些-印度公路远远超越中国,真的假的?



发布日期:2021-03-13 00:08:02 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

Author: Tim is the one

作者:蒂姆就是那个

Drafting: Sun Lu / Proof: Cat Stu / Editor: Yakult

起草人:孙璐/证明:Cat Stu /编辑:养乐多

In recent years, China's infrastructure development has attracted worldwide attention, and the total length of the expressway network has become the world's first. However, when it comes to the total length of roads, China has not ranked among the top two in the world.

近年来,中国的基础设施建设引起了全世界的关注,高速公路网络的总长度已成为世界第一。但是,就公路总长度而言,中国还没有跻身世界前两名。

The number one road mileage in the world is naturally another veteran infrastructure madman-the United States, and this second place is our neighbor-India.

世界上排名第一的公路里程自然是另一位经验丰富的基础设施狂人-美国,而第二名是我们的邻居印度。

Looking at the highway rankings, India seems not worth mentioning

从高速公路排名来看,印度似乎不值得一提

But looking at the road ranking, it’s already the second in the world

但是从道路排名来看,它已经是世界第二

(Picture: Wikipedia-List of highway mileage in various countries)▼

(图片:维基百科-各国公路里程清单)▼

Yes, in terms of mileage, India has the second largest road network in the world. However, overall development is a different story.

是的,就里程数而言,印度拥有世界第二大公路网。但是,总体发展则是另外一回事。

Does this count as overload

这算作过载吗

(Photo: Malcolm P Chapman / Shutterstock.)▼

▼Malstock/Chapcolm摄影)

The northern part of the Indian subcontinent, due to the existence of the Indus Valley and Ganges Valley, is a vast plain area. The flat terrain has created good conditions for India to build roads.

由于印度河谷和恒河谷的存在,印度次大陆的北部是一个广阔的平原地区。平坦的地形为印度修建公路创造了良好条件。

Of course, like many achievements in infrastructure and political construction in India, it was the British colonists who integrated the scattered territories.

当然,就像印度在基础设施和政治建设方面取得的许多成就一样,正是英国殖民者将分散的领土融合在一起。

Under the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

青藏高原下

From the Indus to the Ganges, it forms a wide plain.

从印度河到恒河,它形成了一个广阔的平原。

Further south is the mountainous Deccan Plateau

再往南是山脉的德坎高原

In the history of the Indian peninsula, the reunification of north and south has always been difficult ▼

在印度半岛的历史上,南北统一一直很困难▼

In the 1830s, the British East India Company launched a road construction plan, mainly for commercial and administrative purposes. Since it is the first highway, it must be connected to major cities in India. The specific route is Kolkata-Delhi-Peshawar. This road gradually evolved in the later period, and today it has become part of India's most important road traffic route (Indian trunk road).

1830年代,英国东印度公司发布了一项道路建设计划,主要用于商业和行政目的。由于它是第一条高速公路,因此必须连接到印度的主要城市。具体路线是加尔各答-德里-白沙瓦。这条道路在后期逐渐发展,如今已成为印度最重要的道路交通路线(印度主干路)的一部分。

Two major construction priorities

两大建设重点

One is the east-west traffic artery of the Ganges River Basin

一是篮球投注软件有哪些恒河流域的东西向交通大动脉

One is India's inland export transportation network centered on Mumbai

一是印度以孟买为中心的内陆出口运输网络

The Ganges Artery has a long history, which has continued from the classical era to the present day

恒河动脉历史悠久,从古典时代一直延续到今天

(The picture below is for illustration only, not the specific route during the British colonial period)▼

(以下图片仅供参考,并非英国殖民时期的具体路线)▼

In addition to the construction of major roads in India, the connecting roads between some other major cities are also underway: Mumbai to Pune, Mumbai to Agra, and Mumbai to Chennai are all being built. At the same time, for the sake of sustainable development, the British have also used universities to train a large number of local engineers, surveyors and supervisors for India. With the accumulation of local talents, the future road maintenance work and new road tasks will not worry.

除了在印度修建主要道路外,其他一些主要城市之间的连接道路也正在进行中:孟买至浦那,孟买至阿格拉以及孟买至金奈。同时,为了可持续发展,英国还利用大学为印度培训了大量的本地工程师,测量师和主管。随着本地人才的积累,将来的道路维护工作和新的道路任务将不再担心。

Mumbai is arguably the fastest rising city during the British colonial period

孟买可以说是英国殖民时期崛起最快的城市

This is originally seven small islands, which were gradually reclaimed and expanded

这最初是七个小岛,逐渐被开垦和扩建

Together with the commander of the land and sea transportation hub on the west coast of India

与印度西海岸陆海运输中心的指挥官一起

Shanghai gradually changed from a deserted island to India▼

上海逐渐从荒岛变成印度▼

In the 1850s, Britain had built nearly 2500 kilometers of roads for India.

在1850年代,英国为印度修建了近2500公里的公路。

However, as a veteran infrastructure madman, the British rulers at that time paid most attention not to roads, but a new thing at the time-railways.

但是,作为一位经验丰富的基础设施狂人,当时的英国统治者最关注的不是道路,而是时空铁路的新事物。

Against this background, during the British Indian period, India’s railway network grew by leaps and bounds, while the construction of modern roads did not invest much, so India’s roads have long lagged behind railways.

在这种背景下,在英属印度时期,印度的铁路网络得到了突飞猛进的发展,而现代道路的建设并没有投入太多,因此印度的道路长期落后于铁路。

Railway viaduct from Mumbai to Thane in 1855

1855年从孟买到塔那的铁路高架桥

The British people's development of railways mainly value freight value

英国人铁路的发展主要看重货运价值

(Photo: wikipedia-SMU Central University Libraries)▼

(照片:维基百科-SMU中央大学图书馆)▼

For the Indian people with very low long-term income

对于长期收入很低的印度人

The train is indeed the most cost-effective option, and it is still the case today

火车确实是最具成本效益的选择,而今天仍然如此

(Photo: Hung Chung Chih / Shutterstock)▼

(照片:洪钟智/ Shutterstock)▼

Over time, even the British themselves became anxious. In December 1934, the British Indian Government established the Indian Highway Association in accordance with the recommendations of the Indian Road Development Council.

随着时间的流逝,甚至英国人也开始感到焦虑。 1934年12月,英属印度政府根据印度公路发展委员会的建议成立了印度公路协会。

In 1943, World War II was in full swing. They proposed a 20-year plan (the Nagpur Plan). It was estimated that the road network would be increased to 350,000 kilometers by 1963, and the levy on gasoline since 1939. Part of the tax expense is for the new road plan.

1943年,第二次世界大战如火如荼。他们提出了一个20年计划(那格浦尔计划)。据估计,到1963年,道路网络将增加到350,000公里,并且自1939年起开始对汽油征税。部分税费用于新的道路计划。

Although the plan was almost interrupted due to the decline of British national power and India's independence after World War II, it may be because the foundation left by the British is still there, and the early leaders of India also noticed the value of roads, which was eventually continued. By the late 1950s, Indians had completed this grand plan.

尽管该计划几乎由于二战后英国国家权力的下降和印度的独立而被中断,但这可能是因为英国留下的基础仍然存在,而且印度的早期领导人也注意到道路的价值,最终得以继续。到1950年代后期,印第安人已经完成了这一宏伟计划。

This generation of Indian leaders has a grand dream of being a great power

这一代印度领导人梦想成为一个强大的力量

Although there are setbacks, India's national strength has been greatly improved overall

尽管有挫折,但印度的国力总体上已大大提高

(In 1956, Nehru visited West Germany)

(1956年,尼赫鲁访问了西德)

(Picture: wikipedia)▼

(图片:维基百科)▼

In 1956, India put forward a 20-year goal to double the density of the road network. This plan is also called the "Mumbai Plan."

1956年,印度提出了20年的目标,使道路网络的密度增加一倍。该计划也称为“孟买计划”。

In 1988, the National Highway Administration of India was formally established. Its establishment marks the beginning of a new phase in India's road network construction until now.

1988年,印度国家公路管理局正式成立。迄今为止,它的建立标志着印度道路网络建设进入新阶段的开始。

The competent authority is online

主管当局在线

(Picture: wikipedia-Surya Prakash.S.A.)▼

(图片:维基百科-Surya Prakash.S.A。)▼

To this day, the Indian road network has undertaken 85% of passenger traffic and 70% of freight traffic. But on the books, the super-long road network and the paved road with one lane are only about 10,000 kilometers. The overall situation is not as optimistic as the Indian government's publicity.

迄今为止,印度公路网已承担了85%的客运量和70%的货运量。但在书本上,超长的道路网络和一条车道的铺装道路仅约10,000公里。总体情况不如印度政府的宣传乐观。

Among them, the best road conditions are national highways. They account for about 2% of the total road length in India, but they bear more than 40% of the road transportation demand.

其中,最佳公路条件是国道。它们占印度公路总长度的2%左右,但它们承担了公路运输需求的40%以上。

A rough indication of the Indian National Highway System, all over the country

全国各地的印度国家公路系统的大致说明

After all, except for a few parts of the north, India

毕竟,除了印度北部的一些地区

In most areas, there are not too many geographical barriers in road repair ▼

在大多数地区,道路维修没有太多的地理障碍▼

As a national major channel system, the Indian National Highway also has the same numbering system as the Chinese National Highway.

作为国家的主要通道系统,印度国家公路也具有与中国国家公路相同的编号系统。

The Indian national highway does not have a capital radial highway similar to the "1" in the Chinese national highway. The national highways from north to south are arranged incrementally by even numbers, and national highways from east to west are arranged in odd numbers, very similar to the north-south trunk lines and east-west trunk lines with the prefixes "2" and "3" of the Chinese national highways. Either one digit or two digits.

印度的国道没有与中国的国道“ 1”相似的首都子午线高速公路。从北到南的国道以偶数递增排列,从东到西的国道以奇数排列,这与以“ 2”和“ 3英寸的中国国道。一位或两位数。

The north-south national highway is roughly indicated, sorted by even numbers

粗略标出了南北国道,按偶数排序

(Not all numbers are marked)▼

(并非所有数字都被标记)▼

The east-west direction of the national highway is roughly indicated, sorted by odd numbers

粗略显示国道的东西方向,按奇数排序

(Not all numbers are marked)▼

(并非所有数字都被标记)▼

In addition to the main line, there are branch lines derived from the main line and branch lines (secondary branches). The first-level branch line adds a number before the main line, and the second-level branch line adds a letter after the first-level branch line. . For example, the meaning of 702B is the second (B) second-level branch line of the 7th first-level branch line of the north-south national highway (2) in the east, which is equivalent to the function of the "5" prefix in the Chinese national highway. .

除主线外,还有从主线和分支线(次级分支)派生的分支线。第一级分支行在主行之前添加一个数字,第二级分支行在第一级分支行之后添加一个字母。 。例如,702B的含义是东部的南北国道(2)的第七条第一级分支线的第二(B)条第二级分支线,等效于“ 5 ”为中国国道的前缀。 。

That's it ▼

就这样▼

As for the state roads in India, their nature is the same as that of the domestic provincial roads. They are the main trunk roads in the state. In the national road network, state roads are regarded as branch lines of national roads. However, unlike China’s national and provincial roads, which are almost indistinguishable, Indian state roads are relatively narrow, generally without separation zones, and basically no lanes.

至于印度的国道,其性质与国内省道相同。它们是该州的主要干道。在国道网络中,国道被视为国道的支线。但是,与中国的国道和省道几乎没有区别,印度的国道相对较窄,通常没有分隔区,基本上没有车道。

To be honest, this road situation is similar to the state of a domestic rural road that has just been paved and has not yet been paved.

老实说,这种道路状况类似于刚刚铺设但尚未铺设的国内农村公路的状况。

Beware of slippery roads...

当心湿滑的道路...

(图片:TheFinalMiracle / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:TheFinalMiracle / Shutterstock)▼

As the rural road network (including administrative suburban roads, village roads and community roads) that account for a large proportion of the Indian road network, the administrative level is similar to the roads below the county roads in our country, and the situation is even more disdainful.

由于农村公路网(包括行政郊区道路,乡村道路和社区道路)在印度公路网中所占比重很大,因此行政级别与我国县级公路以下的道路相似,情况甚至更不屑一顾。

This can actually be considered a highway

这实际上可以视为高速公路

(图片:Ravi Shekhar Pandey / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Ravi Shekhar Pandey / Shutterstock)▼

The rural road network is under the jurisdiction of the local government, and is mainly used to solve the "last mile" transportation in various places in the bank. The road conditions are generally poor and the dirt roads are mostly. It is also for this reason that quite a few roads are difficult to navigate during the rainy season, which seriously affects transportation.

农村公路网由当地政府管辖,主要用于解决银行各处的“最后一英里”运输。道路条件通常很差,土路大多。也正是由于这个原因,雨季期间许多道路难以通行,严重影响了交通运输。

This can actually be counted as highway +1

这实际上可以算作高速公路+1

(photo: rinku Mishra / shutterstock)

(热点:Rinkumi sh等人/ Shute rs and ck)

The roads are already very poor, and the level of service provided by India’s road network is also very low, partly due to poor physical conditions, use of old vehicles and increasing traffic. The mixed traffic of fast and slow vehicles, highly congested and unsafe urban intersections, encroachment activities within the right of way along the way, and frequent forced parking at various checkpoints to check documents and collect taxes are also important management reasons.

道路本来就很贫瘠,而且印度的公路网所提供的服务水平也很低,部分原因是身体条件恶劣,使用旧车以及交通流量增加。重要的管理原因是,快,慢车辆的混合交通,高度拥挤和不安全的城市交叉路口,沿路通行权内的侵犯活动以及在各个检查站频繁被迫停车以检查文件和收税也是重要的管理原因。

Even Shanghai-Mumbai in India

甚至印度的上海-孟买

This is also very common

这也很普遍

(Image piece: sldkozaponi / Shutterstock) ▼

(图片:sldkozaponi/Shutterstock)▼

Due to this situation, approximately 25% of national highways and state highways are congested, and the average speed of passenger transport vehicles on national highways is only 30-40km/h. This is the case on the national road, let alone the situation below the state road.

由于这种情况,约有25%的国道和州道拥堵,国道上的客运车辆平均速度仅为30-40 km / h。国道上就是这种情况,更不用说国道下的情况了。

Small rural roads are relatively better

农村小路比较好

(Photo: Saurav022 / Shutterstock)▼

(照片:Saurav022 / Shutterstock)▼

At the same time, road transportation in India is divided into traditional road transportation and modern road transportation.

同时,印度的公路运输分为传统公路运输和现代公路运输。

Traditional road transportation is carried out by ox carts, camel carts, rickshaws, horse carts, etc., and still occupies an important position in India.

传统的公路运输是由牛车,骆驼车,人力车,马车等进行的,在印度仍然占有重要地位。

Roads more suitable for animals

更适合动物的道路

(图片:Lola Tsvetaeva / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Lola Tsvetaeva / Shutterstock)▼

Modern road transportation is undertaken by various motor vehicles. Road transport in India is jointly operated by state governments, private individuals and cooperative agencies.

现代道路运输由各种机动车辆承担。印度的公路运输由州政府,个人和合作机构共同经营。

Because India’s road transport still includes traditional road transport in its definition. So according to the definition, as long as the natural roads that can be walked are counted as roads in India, because these natural roads that have not been developed, cows, horses, camels, and people can still walk and transport on them, and produce "economic benefit".

因为印度的公路运输在其定义中仍然包括传统的公路运输。因此,根据定义,只要可以步行的自然道路在印度算作道路,因为这些尚未开发的自然道路,牛,马,骆驼和人仍然可以在其上行走和运输,产生“经济效益”。

I specifically asked the author

我专门问过作者

This seems to be considered a highway, too.

这似乎也被视为高速公路。

(图片:Lola Tsvetaeva / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Lola Tsvetaeva / Shutterstock)▼

Indian roads look good on the books, but in fact they are frustrated. Indians also know this well. While demanding face-saving data, we also did not forget to upgrade domestic infrastructure facilities. It was just slower, but it has been moving forward.

印度的道路在书本上看起来不错,但实际上它们很沮丧。印第安人也很了解这一点。在要求面子数据的同时,我们也没有忘记升级国内基础设施。它只是速度较慢,但​​一直在向前篮球投注软件有哪些发展。

Especially in places that can't be improvised

特别是在不能即兴创作的地方

No matter how low the cost is, it cannot match the rural dirt road

无论成本多么低廉,它都无法与乡村土路相提并论

Besides, the Indians see it as a strategic path

此外,印第安人将其视为战略之路

(Image: surassawadee / Shutterstock) ▼

(图片:surassawadee/Shutterstock)▼

The current goal of the National Highway Administration of India is to implement its national highway development plan. The key project in the plan is the highway project in India.

印度国家公路管理局的当前目标是实施其国家公路发展计划。该计划中的关键项目是印度的公路项目。

The initial construction plan of the Indian highway is to build a highway network connecting India’s main industrial, agricultural and cultural centers. The four cities of Chennai, Old and New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata are the apex, and the adjacent cities are connected by highways. A quadrilateral, so the plan is also called the golden quadrilateral plan.

印度高速公路的最初建设计划是建立连接印度主要工业,农业和文化中心的高速公路网络。钦奈,旧德里和新德里,孟买和加尔各答的四个城市是最高点,相邻的城市通过高速公路相连。四边形,因此该计划也称为黄金四边形计划。

Currently, the Golden Quadrilateral plan has been completed in 2012.

目前,黄金四边形计划已于2012年完成。

"Golden Quadrilateral"▼

“金四边形”▼

The Indian National Highway System, which has initially formed a system, has also begun coding rules. As there are few highways built, the rule is to arrange them in the order of the time they were built. Currently, 6 highways have been built.

最初形成系统的印度国家公路系统也已开始对规则进行编码。由于修建的公路很少,因此规则是按照建造时间的顺序进行排列。目前,已建成6条高速公路。

The most recent expressway was completed on the 17th of last month. It is a branch of the No. 5 expressway and was named NE5A.

最近的高速公路已于上月17日竣工。它是5号高速公路的分支,被命名为NE5A。

After the completion of the Golden Quadrangle, the next project is also being gradually advanced. This is the North-South Corridor and East-West Corridor Expressway Plan, which will be a highway network connecting India's four poles in the southeast, northwest and northwest.

金色四边形建成后,下一个项目也正在逐步推进。这是北南走廊和东西走廊高速公路计划,它将成为连接印度东南,西北和西北四极的高速公路网络。

While India is proceeding in an orderly manner with respect to highway construction, it also attaches great importance to the development of ordinary highways.

印度在公路建设方面有条不紊地开展工作的同时,也非常重视普通公路的发展。

In particular, India’s border road construction is the top priority for India’s ordinary road construction.

特别是,印度的边界公路建设是印度普通道路建设的重中之重。

The purpose is of course to transport the army and supplies

目的当然是运输军队和补给品

(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

The Border Road Construction Agency of India is an agency established for this task. India has transferred personnel from the Army Corps of Engineers, Army Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, Army Logistics Forces, Army Logistics Forces, and the Army from other regions to form this organization specifically.

印度边境公路建设局是为此目的而建立的。印度已经从陆军工程兵团,陆军电气和机械工程师,陆军后勤部队,陆军后勤部队以及其他地区的陆军调动了人员,专门组成了这个组织。

This is probably the most enthusiastic project of the Indian government

这可能是印度政府最热心的项目

(图片:Perfect Lazybones / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Perfect Lazybones / Shutterstock)▼

At present, its business scope is generally distributed in the border areas of India. At the same time, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka also have related businesses of the agency.

目前,其业务范围普遍分布在印度边境地区。同时,阿富汗,不丹,缅甸和斯里兰卡也有该机构的相关业务。

In June 2020, the border zone of India

2020年6月,印度边境地区

(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

(Image: Faizan Mir / Shutterstock) ▼

(图片来源:Faizan Mir / Shutterstock)▼

Due to the strong military color of this institution, some of India's "heavy weapons" projects are undertaken by it. For example, the 10-year-old Luotang (Atar) Tunnel, which has just been opened to traffic, connects Manali in Himachal Pradesh to Leh in the border area. After the road is completed, it used to climb through the winding road. The Luotang Pass of the Birbenjar Range, which passes through the pass, will pass through in the form of a tunnel, and this tunnel will also become the first long tunnel temporarily in India.

由于该机构的军事色彩浓厚,印度承担了一些“重型武器”项目。例如,已有10年历史的罗塘(阿塔尔)隧道刚刚通车,它将喜马al尔邦的马纳里市与边境地区的列城连接起来。道路完工后,它通常会经过蜿蜒的道路。穿过该通道的Birbenjar山脉的罗塘通道将以隧道的形式通过,该隧道也将暂时成为印度的第一条长隧道。

The section through the snow-capped mountains in the picture is the Luotang (Atar) Tunnel

图中穿过雪山的路段是罗塘(阿塔尔)隧道

(Picture: google map)▼

(图片:谷歌地图)▼

Regardless of the normal construction of India’s border roads, in fact, there are some cute stories during the construction process. For example, when their milestones are set, they use words that make the locals smile to prevent accidents. .

实际上,不管印度边境公路的正常建设如何,在建设过程中都会有一些可爱的故事。例如,当设定了里程碑时,他们使用使当地人微笑的单词来防止篮球投注软件事故发生。 。

India, which has the world's second largest road network, still has great ambitions.

印度拥有世界第二大公路网,但它仍然抱有很大的野心。

Ambition is indeed great

野心确实很棒

(September 2020, the highway to Leh)

(2020年9月,通往列城的高速公路)

(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Sajadhameed / Shutterstock)▼

END

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